🔥 John J. (Black Jack) Pershing | Biography, Facts, & Nickname | Britannica

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Francisco “Pancho” Villa. John J. “Black Jack” Pershing. Kaiser Wilhelm II. Lusitania. Zimmermann note. *American Expeditionary Force (AEF).


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Came into power after the Bolshevik Revolution. General John J. (Blackjack) Pershing. led an American expeditionary force across the Mexican border in pursuit.


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General John J. (Blackjack) Pershing. a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. He is the only.


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U.S. Army general John J. Pershing () commanded the he was nicknamed “Black Jack” by cadets who resented his iron discipline.


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A rebellious leader during the Mexican Revolution. His ordered attacks on U.S. citizens sparked a rapid response from Wilson. John J. ("Black Jack") Pershing.


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U.S. Army general John J. Pershing () commanded the he was nicknamed “Black Jack” by cadets who resented his iron discipline.


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Meuse-Argonne offensive: General John J. "Black Jack: Pershing led American troops in this effort to cut the German railroad lines by supplying the western front.


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A rebellious leader during the Mexican Revolution. His ordered attacks on U.S. citizens sparked a rapid response from Wilson. John J. ("Black Jack") Pershing.


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John J. Pershing, in full John Joseph Pershing, byname Black Jack, (born September 13, , Laclede, Missouri, U.S.—died July 15,


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John J. Pershing, in full John Joseph Pershing, byname Black Jack, (born September 13, , Laclede, Missouri, U.S.—died July 15,


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Pershing returned to the Philippines and remained there until , serving as commander of the department of Mindanao and governor of Moro Province. Furthermore, Pershing, the U. In June he was made adjutant general. Home World History Military Leaders. Email address. Pershing was dispatched to the Philippines as adjutant general of the department of Mindanao in November He was made a captain in the regular army in and conducted a campaign against the Moros until In recognition of his service in the Philippines, U. He organized the Bureau of Insular Affairs in the War Department and acted as head of that bureau for several months. Having assumed that the AEF could not be organized in time to support military operations on the Western Front, the Allies had asked only for financial, economic, and naval assistance. Theodore Roosevelt promoted Pershing to brigadier general from the rank of captain in , passing over more-senior officers in doing so. From the start, Pershing insisted that the integrity of the American army be preserved, making a firm stand against French tutelage and the French desire to infuse the new American blood into their ranks. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. In he became an instructor in military science at the University of Nebraska , Lincoln. Eschewing politics, Pershing remained in the army, serving as chief of staff from until his retirement three years later. See Article History. Earlier American planning had not contemplated such a large army. Pershing also opposed proposals to divert some U. The Supreme War Council, an institution established to coordinate the political-military strategy of the Allies, continually recommended amalgamation and that diversionary operations be conducted elsewhere than in France, but Pershing remained unmoved. Pershing was criticized for operational and logistic errors, but his creation of the AEF was a remarkable achievement. Britannica Quiz. Subscribe today. European History. He next gained attention as commander of the punitive expedition sent against the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa , who had raided Columbus, New Mexico , in After the death of Maj.

John J. By earlyAmerican plans had called for concentrating john j blackjack pershing apush independent army on the Western Front, which Pershing hoped would spearhead a decisive offensive against Germany.

Pershing FirstWorldWar. Frederick Funston inPershing succeeded him as commander on the U. He argued that the fielding of an independent American army would be a serious blow to German morale and provide a permanent uplift to American self-confidence.

More About. He returned home with a sound reputation, and, on September 1,he read more given the rank of general of the armies of the United States.

History at your fingertips. Thank you for your feedback. The exhaustion of the Allies, stemming from the setbacks ofincreased their dependence on U. John j blackjack pershing apush Feedback. Article Media. While there he also earned a law degree He was appointed as an instructor in tactics at West Point in The Spanish-American War gave Pershing an opportunity for rapid promotion.

At the Second Battle of the SommeGerman armies advanced 40 miles 64 km and captured some 70, Allied prisoners. Info Print Cite. Learn More in these related Britannica john j blackjack pershing apush. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

There were two serious skirmishes between regular Mexican and U. In Pershing served in the campaign to suppress the Ghost Dance movement and an uprising among the Sioux in the Dakota Territory, but his unit did not participate in the massacre at Wounded Knee. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. These pressures subsided when the Allies assumed the offensive during the summer, however, and Pershing reverted to his previous policy. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the 6th Cavalry, which was then conducting operations against Geronimo and the Chiricahua Apache in the Southwest. His determination and dedication had gained him the respect and admiration of his men, if not their affection. He served in Cuba through the Santiago campaign and was appointed ordnance officer with the rank of major of volunteers. Woodrow Wilson selected Pershing to command the American troops being sent to Europe. Pershing into Mexico in hot pursuit of Villa, but the wily guerrilla eluded Pershing, and, the deeper the U. Though incomplete preparations and inexperience slowed the Meuse-Argonne operations, the inter-Allied offensive in France destroyed German resistance in early October and led to the Armistice the following month. Thus, the Americans from the front northwest…. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.